The territory goes from the Arno basin to the Ligurian Sea, with a coastline of about 15 km where the seaside resorts of Calambrone, Tirrenia and Marina di Pisa are situated.
The northern part includes the Appenine group of the Monti Pisani (highest summit Monte Serra, 917 m a.s.l.). The southern part is mostly gentle hills, a typical Tuscan landscape, with two valleys, Valdera and Alta Val di Cecina where the
The original nucleus of the province coincides with the historic maritime republic of Pisa, included in the Renaissance period in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. The Municipalities of Santa Maria a Monte, Castelfranco di Sotto, San Miniato, Santa Croce sull'Arno and Montopoli - all previously belonging to the Province of Florence - were added in the 1920's, when the province of Livorno was created with territories of the province of Pisa.