GULF OF VENICE

gulf venezia

The Gulf of Venice is a gulf that borders modern-day Italy, Slovenia and Croatia, and is at the north of the Adriatic Sea between the delta of the Po river in northern Italy and the Istria peninsula in Croatia. On average the gulf is 34 meters deep. It is the home of the popular destination island Albarella. The Tagliamento, Piave, Adige, Isonzo, Dragonja, and Brenta rivers run in to it. Major cities that lie on it are Venice, Trieste, Koper, Chioggia and Pula.

History

In antiquity the gulf was southern terminus of Amber Road. The Gulf of Venice gets its name from when the Venetian Republic was at the height of its power, at this time the Venetian Republic encompassed most of the northern Adriatic Sea.

Venice,, Geography,

TYRRHENIAN SEA

tyrrhenian sea

The Tyrrhenian Sea is part of the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy. It is named for the Tyrrhenian people, identified since the 6th century BC with the Etruscans of Italy. The sea is bordered by Corsica and Sardinia (to the west), the Italian peninsula the Tuscany Region, Lazio Region, Campania Region, Basilicata Region, and Calabria Region to the east, and Sicily (to the south). The Tyrrhenian Sea is situated near where the African and European Plates meet; therefore mountain chains and active volcanoes such as Mount Marsili are found in its depths. The eight Aeolian Islands and Ustica are located in the southern part of the sea, north of Sicily.

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Tyrrhenian Sea as follows: In the Strait of Messina: A line joining the North extreme of Cape Paci (15°42′E) with the East extreme of the Island of Sicily, Cape Peloro (38°16′N). On the Southwest: A line running from Cape Lilibeo (West extreme of Sicily) to the South extreme of Cape Teulada (8°38′E) in Sardinia. In the Strait of Bonifacio: A line joining the West extreme of Cape Testa (41°14′N) in Sardinia with the Southwest extreme of Cape Feno (41°23′N) in Corsica. On the North: A line joining Cape Corse (Cape Grosso, 9°23′E) in Corsica, with Tinetto Island and thence through Tino and Palmaria islands to San Pietro Point on the coast of Italy.

The main ports of the Tyrrhenian Sea in Italy are: Naples, Palermo, Civitavecchia ( Rome), Salerno, Trapani and Gioia Tauro. In France the most important port is Bastia. Note that even though the phrase "port of Rome" is frequently used, there is in fact no port in Rome. Instead, the "port of Rome" refers to the maritime facilities at Civitavecchia, to the northwest of Rome, not too far from its airport. Giglio Porto is a small island port in this area. It rose to prominence, when the Costa Concordia ran aground a few metres off the coast of Giglio and sank. The ship was recently removed and towed to Genoa.

In Greek mythology, it is believed that the cliffs above the Tyrrhenian Sea housed the four winds kept by Aeolus. Homer referred to this in his adventure of the Odessey. The winds are the Mistral from the Rhône valley, the Libeccio from the south-west, and the Sirocco and Ostro from the south.

Geography,, Tyrrhenian Sea,

ADRIATIC SEA | ITALY

adriatic sea

The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula and the Apennine Mountains from the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest and the Po Valley. The countries with coasts on the Adriatic are Italy, Croatia, Albania, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Slovenia.

The Adriatic contains over 1,300 islands, mostly located along its eastern, Croatian, coast. It is divided into three basins, the northern being the shallowest and the southern being the deepest, with a maximum depth of . The Otranto Sill, an underwater ridge, is located at the border between the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. The prevailing currents flow counterclockwise from the Strait of Otranto, along the eastern coast and back to the strait along the western (Italian) coast. Tidal movements in the Adriatic are slight, although larger amplitudes are known to occur occasionally.

The Adriatic's salinity is lower than the Mediterranean's because the Adriatic collects a third of the fresh water flowing into the Mediterranean, acting as a dilution basin. The surface water temperatures generally range from 25 C in summer to 9 C in winter, significantly moderating the Adriatic Basin's climate.

The Adriatic Sea sits on the Apulian or Adriatic Microplate, which separated from the African Plate in the Mesozoic era. The plate's movement contributed to the formation of the surrounding mountain chains and Apennine tectonic uplift after its collision with the Eurasian plate. In the Late Oligocene, the Apennine Peninsula first formed, separating the Adriatic Basin from the rest of the Mediterranean. All types of sediment are found in the Adriatic, with the bulk of the material transported by the Po and other rivers on the western coast. The western coast is alluvial or terraced, while the eastern coast is highly indented with pronounced karstification.

There are dozens of marine protected areas in the Adriatic, designed to protect the sea's karst habitats and biodiversity. The sea is abundant in flora and fauna—more than 7,000 species are identified as native to the Adriatic, many of them endemic, rare and threatened ones.

The Adriatic's shores are populated by more than 3.5 million people; the largest cities are Bari, Venice, Trieste and Split. The earliest settlements on the Adriatic shores were Etruscan, Illyrian, and Greek. By the 2nd century BC, the shores were under Rome's control. In the Middle Ages, the Adriatic shores and the sea itself were controlled, to a varying extent, by a series of states—most notably the Byzantine Empire, the Republic of Venice, the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire. The Napoleonic Wars resulted in the First French Empire gaining coastal control and the British effort to counter the French in the area, ultimately securing most of the eastern Adriatic shore and the Po Valley for Austria. Following Italian unification, the Kingdom of Italy started an eastward expansion that lasted until the 20th century. Following World War I and the collapse of Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, the eastern coast's control passed to Yugoslavia and Albania. The former disintegrated in the 1990s, resulting in four new states on the Adriatic coast. Italy and Yugoslavia agreed on their maritime boundaries by 1975 and this boundary is recognised by Yugoslavia's successor states, but the maritime boundaries between Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian–Herzegovinian and Montenegrin waters are disputed. Italy and Albania agreed on their maritime boundary in 1992. Fisheries and tourism are significant sources of income all along the Adriatic coast.

Adriatic Croatia's tourism industry has grown faster economically than the rest of the Adriatic Basin's. Maritime transport is also a significant branch of the area's economy—there are 19 seaports in the Adriatic that each handle more than a million tonnes of cargo per year. The largest Adriatic seaport by annual cargo turnover is the Port of Trieste, while the Port of Split is the largest Adriatic seaport by passengers served per year.

Geography,, Adriatic Sea,

IONIAN SEA | ITALY

ionian sea

The Ionian Sea is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Adriatic Sea. It is bordered by southern Italy including the Calabria Region, Sicily, and the Salento peninsula to the west, southern Albania to the north, and west coast of Greece. All major islands in the sea belong to Greece. They are collectively referred to as the Ionian Islands, the major ones being Corfu, Zakynthos, Kephalonia, Ithaca, and Lefkada. There are ferry routes between Patras and Igoumenitsa, Greece, and Brindisi and Ancona, Italy, that cross the east and north of the Ionian Sea, and from Piraeus westward. Calypso Deep, the deepest point in the Mediterranean at , is located in the Ionian Sea. The sea is one of the most seismically active areas in the world.

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Ionian Sea as follows: :On the North. A line running from the mouth of the Butrinto River (39°44'N) in Albania, to Cape Karagol in Corfu (39°45'N), along the North Coast of Corfu to Cape Kephali (39°45'N) and from thence to Cape Santa Maria di Leuca in Italy. :On the East. From the mouth of the Butrinto River in Albania down the coast of the mainland to Cape Matapan. :On the South. A line from Cape Matapan to Cape Passero, the Southern point of Sicily. :On the West. The East coast of Sicily and the Southeast coast of Italy to Cape Santa Maria di Leuca.

Geography,, Ionian Sea,

EXPLORING THE SEAS OF ITALY

Seas of Italy

The peninsula of Italy has a coastline of about 7,300 km and is surrounded by the  Mediterranean Sea, which has been historically divided into several smaller seas; Ligurian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Sardinia Sea,  Adriatic Sea, and Ionian Sea. .

The Ligurian Sea touches Italy along the coastline of the Liguria Region and the northern coastline of the Tuscany Region  of Tuscan. Depending on who produced the map you are looking at you will also see the Ligurian Sea extend as far south as the Island of Elba. The Ligurian Sea , center  is the Gulf of Genoa, further south you find the high and rocky coasts of the Riviera di Levante and Cinque Terre.

The Tyrrhenian Sea runs along the coast of the Tuscany Region, starting at Elba Island, south to the coastline of the Calabria Region.  The sea also covers the northern coast of the Island of Sicily and eastern coast of the island of Sardinia. The Tyrrhenian coast varies greatly, alternating with rocky to sandy beaches , with numerous bays and capes. Between the gulfs you should remember at least those of Naples , Salerno and Gaeta, between the Sorrento peninsula , between the headlands of Circeo and the Piombino . In the Tyrrhenian Sea , there are three major channels : between Elba Island and the Tuscany Region coast is the Piombino Channel , between Elba Island and Corsica Island is the Corsica Channel and between Sardinia Island and Corsica Island is the Strait of Bonifacio .

The Adriatic Sea runs along the eastern coast of Italy, from the Friuli Venezia Region south to Cape of Santa Maria di Leuca, in the Puglia Region. The Adriatic coast are fairly straight , characterized in the north by the gulfs of Trieste and Venice, the central region by the Conero promontory and in the south than the Gargano Peninsula. The Adriatic shoreline and beaches tend to be low and sandy, with lagoon ecosystems in the northern section.

The Ionian Sea borders the eastern coast of the Island of Sicily, the Southern coastline of the Calabria Region and Basilicata Region, and the western shorelines of the Puglia Region. The Ionian coasts are mostly low and sandy and are characterized from the large Gulf of Taranto, closed to the east by the Salento Peninsula ( which divides it from the Adriatic ) and to the west by the Calabrian peninsula ( which divides it from the Tyrrhenian Sea ) . The Strait of Messina connects the Ionian and Tyrrhenian seas.

Sea of Sardinia is a small section on the western coastline of Sardina.

THE SEAS OF ITALY

 

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