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Arco | Trento Province


Photo of the town of Arco, Italy

The town of Arco is located to the northern end of Lake Garda  in the Trentino Alto Adige Region of northern Italy.  The community is at the mouth of the Sarca Valley, in an attractive setting with sheer cliffs to one side and overlooked by a castle. The town also flanks the Sarca River valley which flows on into Garda Lake, and due to its position being protected by the mountains allows the area to maintain a mild climate.  This has made the area to be a holiday resort for several centuries, and in recent years a rock climbing destination and mountain bike hub.

Arco is a mecca to most rock climbers and within the town you will find several outdoor shops. 


Arco can be reached by regional bus from Rovereto or Trento.  There is no train to the town. 

What to See in the Town of Arco

A visit to Arco will usually start with a walk up to the castle. According to some sources, the construction of Arco castle originated in the Middle Ages, and was erected by the residents of Arco. Later the castle became the property of the local noble family of the Counts of Arco, who dominated these lands. The castle was abandoned during the 18th century following a siege by French troops in 1703. A careful restoration in 1986 and others in subsequent years have allowed the discovery and recovery of some cycles of frescoes depicting knights and court ladies of medieval times.

Sanctuary of Our Lady of Grace -The houses of the old town, hugging the ancient castle cliff, offer an interesting route to follow through Arco, starting with the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Grace. This shrine and the nearby monastery were built between 1475 and 1492 at the behest of the local count. Over the following centuries the building has undergone several renovations, but arches and some columns with plain capitals dating from the early construction of the 15th century are still visible in the cloister. Inside, the shrine holds a wooden statue of the Virgin Mary, probably also dating from the 15th century.

Collegiate Church of the Assumption - Enter the Collegiate Church of the Assumption, a 17th century work if the late Renaissance by G.M. Filippi, the architect of the Imperial Cour. ‘Collegiate’ seems to have come from the Latin term "Collegium", and indicates that there was once a community of priests who lived communally here. Inside the church, which has one aisle, there is a marble statue dedicated to the Assumption, perhaps by the sculptor Gabriele Cagliari da Verona.

Palazzo Marchetti - Among the civil buildings of interest in Arco note the Palazzo Marchetti. This building, originally called the “Palace of St Peter”, dates from the 16th century and is located on the east side of the Collegiate Church of the Assumption. The building was owned by Count Arco until the mid-19th century. Inside the building there are several cycles of frescoes from different ages and artists, while at the southern entrance of the building there is a prominent portal attributed to the painter and sculptor Giulio Romano (1499-1546).

Palazzo dei Panni - Another noteworthy Arco palace is the Palazzo dei Panni ('Palace of Cloths'), which was built in the last decades of the 17th century. Its construction was ordered by Count Gianbattista of Arco (died 1722) and a powerful witness of the local Counts of Arco is still visible on the portal, dominated by the family coat of arms. Near the end of the 18th century the building was converted into a woollen mill, from where the name of 'Cloths Palace' is likely to derive.

What to eat and drink in Arco

There is also a long tradition of good food here which we recommend you sample during a visit to Arco! The local cuisine is very tempting, especially in winter, with dishes such as potato “gnocchi” with bacon, “rucola” and “ricotta”, “Franciscan tagliatelle”, “ravioli” with bacon, apples and nuts with melted butter, “Spaghetti Guitar” with crisp vegetables, cream of potato and leeks with crispy bacon all being popular.


Brenta Mountain Group Bike Tour to Bolzano


Bike Tour Brenta Loop in Italy

This is a great ride that you can do by connecting sections of the Trentino-Alto Adige bike path together.  The Giro the Brenta (around the Brenta) takes you through thick forest and open valleys with mountains and vineyards forming a perfect picture on both sides.  This ride is for the cyclist that wants to just relax and take in the natural beauty of the Dolomite Mountains.  The route circumnavigates the western most section of the UNESCO world monument, cruising through the green Val di Sole and the more narrow Val Rendena on Days 1 and 2, then following the flat and scenic Strada del Vino through the vineyards on Day 3.


June, July, August and September are good months to ride.  The Strada del Vino section on Day 3, due to its lover elevation, is also a nice ride in spring and autumn and can be combined with the Adige Valley Bike Path route to make a loop starting and ending in Bolzano.


It is also best to buy an updated map upon arrival in Italy, (even in the departure region) Touring Club Italy map Trentino-Alto Adige is still my best suggestion, and visit the local tourist office for free and updated bicycle routes.  


Mostizzolo, Trento (start)
Train - Mostizzolo train station is easiest to get to from Trento.  Several trains run daily from Tento up the Val di Sole, however the train line is run by a private organization Ferrovia Trento Malè-Marilleva, (phone: 046123850) to find the schedule, there is no active web site at this time. 

The Val del Sole Train station is 200 meters to the right of main Trento station.  During the winter schedule only 4 bicycles are allowed on various trains and you cannot pre-book seats.  During the summer schedule there is an attached bicycle car and you can book your ticket in advance.

Mostizzolo is the stop just after the town of Cles, there are no facilities at the station, the travel time is about 1 1/2 hours and cost 4 euro per person plus a 2 euro supplement for the bicycle.


You could cycle from Trento to Mostizzolo, but some sections are full of traffic at times.  If you want to ride just take the Adige Valley bike path out of Trento north to Mezzocorona (24 km), then follow the valley up the towards Cles and then Mostizzolo (34 km).  This will make your first day quite challenging.

Bolzano (finish) Bolzano is a main hub along the major transportation lines, you can get a train anywhere to your next destination, or bus up into the Dolomite's.


Day 1: Mostizzolo to Pinzolo
3-6 hours, 48 km

The route consists of three segments: an initial easy stretch along the Val di Sole bike path, a challenging climb to Passo Camp Carlo Magno, and the descent down to Pinzolo.
As you leave the train station at Mostizzolo, the route takes you down to the beautiful gorge at Ponte Mostzzolo, where you will find the start of the Val di Sole bike path on the far side of the bridge, on your right.  You follow the first 15 kms of the path as you work your way up through forest, fields and apple orchards, following the Noce River catching sights of people rafting, and enjoying stunning views of the distant Alps to the west.

At Dimaro (15.9 km) the route turns south off the bike path and begins to the climb to Paso Campo Carlo Magno, named for Charlemagne, who crossed this pass in the late 1700's during his campaign against the Lombards.  There are a few places to in Dimaro to grab a snack or cafe before the climb, and be sure to drink some water and refill your bottles before taking on the climb.  The climb will start off steep but the grade gets easier, after the village of Folgarida, where you will get your first good views of the Dolomiti di Brenta, to your east. From the pass, it is just 2.3 km down to the trendy town of Madonna di Campiglio, it will feel a bit empty during the summer months but in winter it is the place to be for skiing. The route works it way through the town center and back streets to avoid a long tunnel, before it rejoins the main highway.  The descent is full of spectacular views of the Adamello mountain group, as you pass through the meadows that lead to Sant'Antonio di Mavignola.  At Sant'Antonio di Mavignola you will find the start of the Val Rendena Bike Path, from here is a quick descent along the headwaters of the Sarca  River to arrive in Pinzolo.

Day 2: Pinzolo to Molveno
3-6 hours, 50 km, 680 meters elevation gain

Today's route continues along the Val Rendena bike path as you linger in the lowlands of the valley before starting your gradual climb up to Molveno.  The first 11 km of the an easy ride along the bike path as it follows the Sarca River.  Sometimes the bike path will merge with a town street, but it is easy to follow. The path ends after 14 km,and the route continues downhill on SS39.  Just beyond Toine di Trento there is a short bike path (4 km) that leads east toward, the small town of Pez.  Here the route climbs out of the valley on a nice secondary road.  As the road levels out you will contour along the mountainside, crossing the Val d'Algone canyon, and passing the gorge and waterfall into Stenico (32.2 km). Stenico offers limited services, but the short side trip to the Castello di Stenico, sitting about the town, is a nice side trip.  The Castel was created in the 12th century by the prince-bishops of Trento to guard the important route between Trento and Lombardy.  Within the castle is an interesting fresco of the Virgin Mary tormented by a dragon, that was painted in the 13th century.   The final leg from Stenico to Molveno is through rolling hills and through a few limestone tunnels before you arrive at Lago di Molveno.  Circle the lake to arrive to the township of Molveno.

Day 3: Molveno to Bolzano
4.6 hours, 72.5 km
The spectacular landscapes you pass through today make this ride a sublime experience.  This section is longer but less challenging, than the previous day, with long stretches of flat and downhill riding. That being said, you do start off the ride today with a short climbing out of Molveno and up to the town of Andalo, from here it is a 13 km descent to the Noce River Valley.   There are some great photo opts just past Spormaggior, where switchbacks trace thier way through the landscape covered with apple orchards.   At 19.8 km, the route crosses SS43 to follow an abandoned road labelled SP29.  The road is overgrown with bushes and the paving is rough in places, but the guard rails are in place.  This traffic free shortcut drops down into the Adige Valley were you find yourself in wine country.   From Mezzocorona you will ride through some of Italy's most striking landscapes.  The secondary roads contour the base of the valley and pass though the many vineyards and apple orchards.  At 33 km you pass through the historical centre of Magre (Marreid), be sure and take a moment to visit the quaint streets of this village. After Magre you will ride to Lago di Caldaro, a national park area with lots of bird life, that attracts watcher throughout the world.  The next several km will climb through the vineyards until you reach the town of Caldaro (Kaltern), 54 km mark. Just after the town there are several enotche (wine bars) that offer tastings of the local wines.   From Caldaro, a nice bike path follows the old railway to reach Cornaiano (Girlan), from here it is a quick ride down into Bolzano.


Canazei | Trento Province



Canazei is a town and holiday-ski resort in the Trento Province of the Trentino Alto Adige Region. The town sits at the head of the Fassa Valley and is well placed for exploring the Italian Dolomites. Canazei is in a great setting surrounded by high mountains, easy access from Bolzano or Trento and  as a result is a popular destination in both summer and winter.

What to See in Canazei

Canazei (1460 m.) together with the small villages of Gries, Alba and Penìa are famous for their strategic position in reaching the  Passo Pordoi, Passo Sella, and  Passo Fedaia. The town does not have a lot to see but instead it is a base to make excursions into the mountains. Ski resorts, bike parks, swimming pool, walks, endless sports and fun are the answer to the needs of mountain lovers who make Canazei a true reference point for tourists from all over the world.

Canazei is located at the base  of some the most important mountain groups in the Italian Dolomite. These mountains offer visitors the opportunity to explore some of the largest and most extraordinary ski resorts in Italy.  Canazei is part of the Dolomiti Superski group.and there is both downhill and cross-country skiing slopes, a snowpark, an ice-stadium. 

Sella Mountain Group, Sassolungo Mountain Group, and the Marmolada Mountain Group guarantee a vast number of ski-lifts, hiking paths, and climbing routes to fully satisfy the visitor. At the end of the day you can relax in one of the many wellness centres and also have a taste of the après ski night life in the local pubs and bars.

During the summer months Canazei is an excellent base for hiking in the dolomites, with mountain climbing also very popular in the region. Hiking is a particularly popular activity from Canazei, with hikes of different challenges available. Some of the toughest are found in Gruppo di Sella to the north of the town. The ski lifts from the town make it easy to reach the upper elevations, and makes the town a very good summertime base.  The panoramic views from Col dei Rossi, Passo Sella, andPecol are among the best in the world.

Canazei has also been a stage in the Giro d'Italia cycling competition on several occasions, and cycling enthusiasts like to follow some of the popular routes through the mountains.Other International events which bring ski-mountaineering and sky running lovers to high altitude are the Sellaronda Skimarathon and the Dolomites Sky race.

Cavalese | Trento Province



Cavalese is a comune of 4,004 inhabitants in Trentino, northern Italy, a ski resort and the main center in the Fiemme Valley. It is part of the Magnifica Comunità di Fiemme (Magnificent Community of Fiemme) and, together with Predazzo, is the administrative, cultural and historical center of the valley. The town is a renowned tourist location, during winter for cross-country and alpine sky, and during summer for excursions. The town is also sadly renowned for the so-called " Cermis massacre" of 1998, when an US aircraft teared down the cable-car connecting the town to the near Cermis mountain during a training exercise, killing 20 people.

The origins of Cavalese can be dated back to the Bronze Age, with the creation of a small settlement. The proper village developed during the 12th century, with the creation of mills, sawmills and blacksmiths for copper manufacturing along the Gambis brook. By that time, the Fiemme Valley was ruled by prince bishop of Trento, which allowed a broad autonomy to the local community (from here the name, Magnifica Comunità di Fiemme). During the 16th and 17th centuries Cavalese became the vacation resort of bishops and aristocrats from the region, who greatly contributed to the development of the village. The palace of the bishops will eventually became the abode of the Magnificent Community during the 19th century. During the 1900s, and especially in the years following the end of World War II, the town underwent an impressive growth thanks to the development of the construction industry, craftsmanship and tourism, with the creation of numerous hotels and more accessible ways of communication. The cable car from Cavalese to the nearby mountain Cermis has been the site of two major cable-car accidents, one in 1976 and one in 1998 (due to a U.S. Marine Corps Northrop Grumman EA-6B Prowler aircraft cutting the cable during a training exercise, killing 20 people). In both cases the car, descending from Cermis, fell to the ground.

Comano Terme | Trento Province


comano terme

Comano Terme is an Italian comune (municipality) in the province of Trentino in northern Italy. It was created on January 1, 2010, by the union of the former comuni of Bleggio Inferiore andLomaso. The municipality was created after a referendum, called on September 27, 2009, in both the comuni. Its name derives from the spa (terme) located in the village of Comano, formerly part ofLomaso.

The municipality includes the civil parishes (frazioni) of Biè,Bleggio Inferiore (the municipal seat), Bono, Cares, Cillà, Comano, Comighella, Dasindo, Duvredo, Godenzo, Lomaso (also named Campo Lomaso),Lundo, Poia, Ponte Arche (partly located in Stenico), Santa Croce, Sesto, Tignerone, Val d'Algone, Vergonzo, Vigo Lomaso, Villa Comano Terme borders with the municipalities of Arco, Bleggio Superiore, Bocenago, Dorsino, Dro, Fiavè, Giustino, Massimeno,Ragoli, San Lorenzo in Banale, Stenico, Tenno and Tione di Trento.


  • Spa of Comano
  • Campo Castle
  • Restor Castle
  • Spine Castle

Fiera di Primiero | Trento Province


fiera di primiero

Fiera di Primiero is a comune (municipality) in Trentino in the northern Italian region Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, located about east of Trento. Fiera di Primiero is the smallest municipality in land area in Italy. Founded in the 15 century by a nobel Austrian Family the area has been a cross roads trading post since. 

Today the town host several mountain events and is a major summer vacation point for hikers, walkers, and cyclist.  Fiera di Primiero is the last town on the roads leading to Passo Cereda to the west, and Passo Rolle north. The town sits in the shadow of the Pale di San Martino Mountain group and a great place to visit within the Dolomites.

Folgaria | Trento Province



Folgaria (Cimbrian: Folgrait) is a comune (municipality) in Trentino in the northern Italian region Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, located about southeast of Trento. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 3,150. The comune territory borders the following municipalities: Caldonazzo, Centa San Nicolò, Besenello, Calliano, Lavarone, Lastebasse, Rovereto, Terragnolo and Laghi. It includes six main frazioni (Costa, Serrada, Guardia, Mezzomonte, San Sebastiano, Carbonare e Nosellari) and other of lesser size (Pont, Ondertol, Dori, Molino nuovo, Forreri, Ca nove, Molini, Peneri, Fontani, Scandelli, Sotto il soglio, Carpeneda, Mezzaselva, Erspameri, Francolini, Colpi, Nocchi, Perpruneri, Tezzeli, Morganti, Cùeli, Buse e Virti) in the valleys of Rio Cavallo and Astico. It is a renowned ski resort, but it is also frequented in summer.

Levico Terme | Trento Province


Levico Terme

Levico Terme (Levego in local dialect) is a comune (municipality) in Trentino in the northern Italian region Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, located about southeast of Trento. As of 30 June 2012, it had a population of 7,668.Levico Terme is located on the highest point of the Valsugana valley bottom, at above sea level, from Trento and about from Padua, on the banks of the Rio Maggiore brook, which is a tributary of Lake Levico, from which originates the Brenta River. The city is dominated by the mountains of the Lagorai range on the north, with Monte Fronte, elevation , and Monte Panarotta, and the zone of the Plateaus (Vezzena, Lavarone, Luserna, Folgaria) on the south, where Cima Vezzena, also locally called Pizzo di Levico , with its distinctive Austro-Hungarian fort on its top, and Cima Pegolara are located.

To the west the Vigolana range can be seen past the lakes of Levico and Caldonazzo, and on the east the valley opens considerably, and the view extends beyond Borgo Valsugana. The urbanised area is predominantly on the valley floor, with the main urban centre lying on the left side of the river Brenta along with the frazioni of Selva and Campiello, while on the right of the river lie the 'frazioni' of Barco, Santa Giuliana and Quaere. Other hamlets do not lie on the valley floor, though their population is low and often tied to seasonal activities such as tourism (Vetriolo Terme, ) or mountain activities such as logging, grazing and recreation (Passo Vezzena). The municipality of Levico Terme is traditionally divided into sixrioni (quarters): Chiesa (north-west), Furo (north-east), Grande (south-west) and Cortina (south-east) in the main urban centre, Oltrebrenta comprising all the frazioni on the right bank of the Brenta (Barco, Santa Giuliana, Quaere), and Selva comprising the village of the same name and Campiello. West of the city, above Lake Levico, lies Forte Col De Le Bene, an Austro-Hungarian fort, also known as Forte San Biagio, from the name of the hill it is built on.

Madonna di Campiglio | Trento Province


madonna di campiglio

Madonna di Campiglio is a village and a ski resort in northeast Italy. It is a frazione of the comune of Pinzolo. The village lies in the Val Rendena at an elevation of above sea level, and has approximately 1,000 inhabitants. The ski area around Madonna has 57 lifts and of ski runs, with a capacity of more than 31,000 people per hour, rises to , has of snow park, for Nordic skiing and links to the pistes in Pinzolo, Folgarida, and Marilleva. Madonna is the main point of access to the Brenta Dolomites, with its famous via ferrata, with the ski lift to the Passo Groste taking one directly to the northern end of the viaferrata network.

Male | Trento Province



Malé (or Freienthurn) is a comune (municipality) in the northern Italian region Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, located about northwest of the provincial capital Trento. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 2,142. The municipality of Malé contains the frazioni (subdivisions, mainly villages and hamlets) Magras,Arnago, Bolentina, Montes, Pondasio and Molini. Malé borders the following municipalities: Rabbi, Terzolas, Croviana and Monclassico. The economy of Malé is based mainly on tourism, handcraft (typically wooden products), and farming (typically producing apples, cheese and cold cuts). The Trento-Malè-Marilleva railway connects the comune to Trento. Near Malè is the Stelvio National Park, the biggest natural National Park in Italy and the Brenta group a UNESCO World heritage site. In 2008 Malè was the venue of the mountain bike trials competitions of the UCI Mountain Bike & Trials World Championships "Val di Sole 2008". The sections were set up (for the first time in the history of the Worlds) in the town squares, creating a unique charm and a very appreciated show.

Mezzocorna | Trento Province



Mezzocorona, until 1902 Mezzotedesco is a comune (municipality) in Trentino in the northern Italian region Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, located about north of the city of Trento. Mezzocorona borders the following municipalities: Mezzolombardo, Ton, Roverè della Luna, San Michele all'Adige and Nave San Rocco. The name was derived from mezzo (means middle or in between) and corona (means crown, related to nearby castle), Mezzolombardo (mezzo-lombardo) was part of the area but split into two in 1194. Another explanation was mezzo came from local dialect, whichmez means wet. In the old name Mezzotedesco, tedesco means German, while lombardo refer to Lombardy; in German Deutschmetz means Germanmetz while Mezzolombardo's German name Welschmetz means Romance-speakingmetz.

Moena | Trento Province



Moena (Ladin: Moéna, or Moyen) is a comune (municipality) in Trentino in the northern Italian region Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, located about northeast of Trento. It is the largest comune in the Fassa Valley. In the census of 2001, 1,967 inhabitants out of 2,602 (75.6%) declared Ladin as their native language. The municipality borders with Falcade (BL), Nova Levante (BZ), Pozza di Fassa, Predazzo, Soraga, Tonadico and Vigo di Fassa. It counts the hamlets (frazioni) of Forno,Medil, San Pellegrino, Penia, Someda and Sorte.


Sights include the church of San Vigilio, with a Gothic bell tower and 18th-century paintings by Valentino Rovisi, and the ancient church of San Volfango, with 15th-century frescoes and a Baroque ceiling by Giovanni Guadagnini (17th century).

Monte Bondone | Prealp Mountains of Italy


valle dei laghi

Monte Bondone, 1.654m a.s.l., is located  in the Trentino Alto Adige Region, and is part of the Prealps. The city of Trento and the Adige Valley is on the eastern slopes, and the upper parts of the Sacra Valley and Lake Grada is to the west.  Monte Bondone is part of the Prealps.

The Monte Bondone is often on the route of the Giro d'Italia road bicycle race and either passes through or finishes at the town of Vason, at the top of this mountain.  The ascent to the summit can be done by 3 routes.

Starting from Lasino, the Monte Bondone is 23.7 km. 1203 meter elevation gain, and average grade of 5.1%. Starting from Trento, the ride is 21.5 km long, with a 1463 meter gain, and average grade of 6.8%. And starting from Aldeno, it is 22.5 km, 1445 meter elevation gain, and 6.4% average grade.


Monte Bondone Bike Climb from the town of Aldeno

Passo Duran | Dolomites


Passo Duran Dolomites

Passo Duran sits at 2546 meters a.s.l. and separates the Civetta Mountain Group and the Schiara Mountain Group of the Italian Dolomites.  Passo Duran is located in the Belluno Province of the Veneto Region and connects Agordo with the Zoldo Valley. Arriving at the pass from the western side, the town of Agordo, you see one of the classic views of the Bellunese Dolomites. 

Passo Duran is one of the classic bike tours in Italy and should be on your list of places to ride.  The pass is also is a start point or transition point to many of the great hikes in the Dolomites.  Not having bus service means that the pass is quiet and off the beaten path of large groups of tourist.  The Moiazza mountain sits to the north of the pass and there are several great vie Ferrate and Alpine climbs to explore.

 Passo Duran Dolomites


Passo Duran can be reached by car, bike, or foot.  There is no public transportation up to the pass the closest you can get is either by bus to Agordo, or by bus to Forno di Zoldo.  The closest you can reach Passo Duran by train is Belluno or Longarone. 


The best way to ride Passo Duran is to base yourself in Agordo, Arabba, Cortina, or Belluno and make a loop ride.  A great day of riding if you are unsupported is to ride over and back from Agordo.   Typically you want to ride down the valley of Agordo due to traffic and the amount of tunnels, passes nearby that you can ride over are Passo Ceredo, Passo Staulanza and Passo Giau.

Bike Tour Passo Duran | Italian Dolomite

Passo Menghen from Borgo Valsugana Bike Climb


Passo Menghen is one of the many classic bike routes you should ride if you are visiting Italy. Passo Menghen is located in the Lagorai Group of the Dolomite Mountain, in the Trento-Alto Adige region. The pass connects the valley of Valsugana with the Fiemme valley, and links the two towns of Castelnuovo and Molina. Sitting at 2047 meters (6,716 ft.) it is amongst the highest roads in Italy and the climb itself is rated in the top 20. (for Italy).

The pass of Menghen has been part of the Campagnolo granfondo for several years and in 2008 the Giro d'Italia passed over on it's way to finishing in San Martino di C. This year the 2012 Giro d'Italia will be passing over passo Menghen once again.  This is a great ride and much more challenging then it looks on paper.


Maps: This climb is on both the Touring Club Italian Trentino-Alto Adige map and Veneto Map.

The best time to ride this route is between June and October.  The pass could be open in other months depending on snow conditions.


Elevation at Start 381 meters
Elevation at Top 2042·meters
Elevation Gain 1661·meters
Length 23.4·meters
Average Grade 7 %
Max Grade 15%

Passo Menghen can be reached by riding the Valsugana bike path from Trento south or north from Bassano del Grappa.  If you wanted to ride just the climb you can take the train that runs between Trento and Bassano del Grappa, getting off in Borga Valsugana


The Passo Menghen bike climb is a great bicycle tour to do while you are Italy. This is a very isolated climb so you should consider doing the ride supported or as part of a group.  If you are planning on doing just the ascent and descent from Castelnuovo or Borgo Valsugana you should have no problems.  

The Valsugana Bike Path that runs from Lago Caldonezzo to Bassano del Grappa. If you are arriving by bicycle riding from Bassano you can start the climb from Castelnuovo or Borgo Valsugana.  Riding from Trento you should just start the climb at Borgo Valsugana.  There is also a small train that runs between Trento and Bassano del Grappa that offers bici-train service. You will need to get off at the Borgo Valsugana stop. If you are driving I would park in Castelnuova, there is a free parking area (except Saturday morning) where as Borgo Valsugana most of the parking is pay.  For more options on organizing the ride or questions contact me via email.

Starting from Castelnuovo just need to follow the signs for passo Menghen. The first 2·km is up to a rotary that links you  with the road from Borgo Valsugana and you are always following the signs toward passo Menghen. My computer was reading 6% for most of the way up this section. After the rotary you have a section averaging 4.9% until you reach Telva, you do not actually go into the town, the main road contours around and at the 4.4 km point you will turn right following the signs toward Passo Menghen. Up to this point this is the most scenic part of the ride with some great views of the Valsugana in the direction of Bassano del Grappa and the Asiago Plateau.

After Telva and turning right you start riding though the val Calamento forest for a little more than 4 km. This section averages 6.7% and has sections up to 11%. On my computer it showed 12 and 13% several times. Around the 8 km mark there is a small bar on the right if you need supplies or restroom this is generally you last open establishment on most days.

At about the 9.2 km mark the climb will lessen to about 4.8% average until you get to the 12.5 km point. This is the best place to refuel and drink, try to resist driving hard during this section or you will pay later. There are a couple of fountains along this section be sure to fill up because after val Calamento village there is only a couple of mountain streams if you run out of water.

From the 12.5 km point you are nearing the village of valCalamento. ·From here you are riding 9.4% average with most of the next 2 km be greater than 10% with short section reading 12-13%.  After the village the road narrows and you will have a length of road that will average 5.7% up until the 17.4 km mark.  This is also the first time you will get to see the pass in the distance.

From the 17.4 km mark you will now face the hardest part of the climb. The average grade up to from this point is 9.9% and you will have just over 7 km remaining. There are several points of 12 and 13% as the road crawls up the bowl leading to the pass. 

At the pass there is the sign post and a cross. If you continue over the pass and about 100 meters down on the Molina side is a Refugio that is generally open. But plan on being alone and self-sufficient.

During the descent back down the valley there were two to three sign posts for 15%. Also my computer read about 2 % harder in many of the listing on salita.ch's and citybikes profiles. The profile I posted below is from the 2008 official Giro altimeter and even it has a few different reading then my computers. 

There is little travel during the week days but this pass seems to be listed on the motorcycle tour listing so on Saturday and Sunday you get allot of motorcycles on the road, I would try to schedule my ride on a different day.

Borgo Valsugana can be reached by Train from Trento and Bassano del Grappa. The climb starts from the train station.

Planning a Dolomite Bike Tour check out our Classic Climbs of the Dolomite's Bike Tour

Piccolo Dolomites Mountains


Piccolo Dolomites, Italy

A small group of Peaks that sit above the town of Schio in the Vicenza Province. The group is made up of Pasubio, Craega, Cornetto and Cinque Croce. The peaks are just over 200 meters and have the same rugged shape, with individual towers, like the Dolomites. Thus, they get their name as a smaller version of the Dolomiti. The area was part of the Italian Front during WWI with some intense fighting occurring. Ernest Hemingway was sent to the Red Cross section in Schio when he first arrived in Italy to support the Army Group making attacks on this front.

The Piccolo Dolomiti and Recoaro Mille act as a crown to Recoaro Terme and include the groups of Carega, Sengio Alto, and Pasubio. The tourist attractions in this zone are also outstanding (climbing, excursions, summer and winter vacations, snow sports). The plateau of Tonezza del Cimone and the Fiorentini, which is still in the Vicentine area, is crossed by easy new roads; a new residential zone is being built on the Fiorentini; the beautiful snowfields of the zone of Toraro, Campomolon, and Melegnon are being equipped with modern tow equipment.



  • Schio
  • Folgaria
  • Rovereto
  • Recoaro Terme
  • Lavarone



  • Passo Campogrosso
  • Pian d. Fuguzze
  • Passo Bocolo
  • Passo Coe


  • Sentiero alpinistico Cesare Battisti
  • vie ferrata Carlo Campaiani
  • vie ferrata Gaetano Falcipieri



Places to Visit in the Trento Province

Predazzo | Trento Province



Predazzo (laterally big meadow) is an Italian village of 4,562 (M 2,217 and F 2,345) inhabitants in in province of Trento. Located in northern Italian is part of the Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol region. Predazzo is located about 58 kilometres northeast of Trento in Val di Fiemme. It is one of the main centers of Val di Fiemme (the other is Cavalese) and it is also the most populous and widespread of the Val di Fiemme, thanks to a particularly favorable geography. It is an important road junction and trade between the valleys of Fiemme and Fassa and the area of Primiero. Predazzo is the most populous of the Valleys dell'Avisio, as well as the seventeenth most populated municipality of the Province of Trento. The territory of the municipality of Predazzo was greatly enlarged with its 109.84 km square, it is the ninth largest municipality by area in the province of Trento (although the eastern borders do not follow the lie of the land: for the border of the area Primiero not located at the watershed of the Passo Rolle, but more than six kilometers below, just above the town Paneveggio). However, for historical reasons, Predazzo is not the capital of the Val di Fiemme (also for its off-center) and the population is dependent on other town in the Val di Fiemme for many services.

Predazzo borders with the following municipalities: Moena, Tesero, Panchià, Ziano di Fiemme, Siror, Canal San Bovo, Nova Levante (BZ) and Nova Ponente (BZ). Located at the confluence of the river Travignolo from the Dolomite Group of the Pale di San Martino, in the river Avisio, from the top of the Marmolada, it is the most upstream of the Val di Fiemme. On the road from the town to Passo Rolle, there is the Forte Dossaccio, Austrian fortification of First World War. The city of Predazzo is part of: Natural park, Parco Naturale Paneveggio - Pale di San Martino, Magnifica Comunità di Fiemme and Comprensorio della Valle di Fiemme (C1). For the weather in Predazzo see Stazionemeteorological di Predazzo.

Predazzo is divided in 8 neighborhoods and has 6 hamlets: Bellamonte, Paneveggio, Mezzavalle, Fol, Coste and Zaluna. Pè de Pardac (Piè di Predazzo) is the historic center and it is located between Sommavilla and Molin. Molin is located on the west part of Predazzo, at the foot of Pelenzana, and take the name from the presence of mills and canals in the early twentieth century. Before the advent of the electric light, in fact, many manufacturers took advantage of the hydraulic force on the course of the water conveyed in canals. Somaìla (Sommavilla), situated near the square, is considered part of the old town and marks the end of the valley Travignolo. Located north of Predazzo Iscia is adjacent to Poz and Sommavilla and includes several historical buildings and barns. Poz is a very recently district, close to the municipal aqueduct north of Predazzo and at the foot of Mount Mulat. Adjacent at it there is Birreria that take the name because of the presence of a brewery (now closed) near the exit to the north of Predazzo. Borgonuovo appears to be the newest part of Predazzo. New houses built close to the horse racing and football fields. It is located south of Predazzo. The Travignolo marks a boundary between the district and the Molin Borgonuovo.

How to arrive to Predazzo

  • By car: Predazzo can easily be reached from both south and north State Road 12 or Brenner motorway A22 (exit Neumarkt / Auer; 38 km distance from the toll gate), then continue on the state road SS48 of the Dolomites towards Cavalese. It is also possible from Lavis following the SS 612 della Val di Cembra. It's accessible from Passo Rolle and San Martino di Castrozza the SS 50.
  • Public transport: You can get off at the railway station of Trento or better than that of Ora, both linked to the country with a good bus service.
  • By plane: The nearest airports are Catullo in Verona which is about 90 km, Venice Marco Polo Airport (195 km), Milano Linate (245 km) and Bolzano Airport (60 km).

Riva del Garda | Trento Province


Riva del Garda Italy

Riva del Garda is situated at the northern end of Lake Garda in the Trento Province of theTrentino Alto Adige Region. Known as "Benacus" by the Romans, the town is on a small plain formed by the rivers of the Sarca Valley.  The entire valley is surrounded by 2000 meter peaks of the Alps and Prealps.

Lake Garda is one of the most popular of the lakes in northern Italy, and Riva del Garda is among the highlights of a visit to the lake. The town has a fortress dominating the lakefront area and an interesting old town to explore full of narrow cobbled streets and pretty shady squares. The favourable climatic conditions of the region can best be seen in the Mediterranean vegetation like agave, rosemary, prickly pears and oleander grow spontaneously while among the cultivated plants, the olive-tree is very common. In Roman times the town was a commercial centre of great importance due to its location on the shores of the Garda Lake and because of the closeness of the Sarca River.


In the middle ages Riva del Garda was a fiefdom of the Bishop of Trent, but control of the city was often contested by other Italians such as the Venetians, the Scaligeri from Verona and the Visconti from Milan, as well as by foreign powers including the Tyrolese, Austrian, Germans and French. Despite these many challenges the city always retained a certain autonomy. Having started the 20th century as part of the Austrian Hapsburg Empire, Riva del Garda became part of Italy after World War 1 and part of Germany during World War 2. It is now firmly established in Italy, although the Austrian-German heritage can be seen in the architecture of the town. Because of the quality of its climate and some first-rate sanatoriums Riva del Garda was also visited by many literary personalities including Goethe, Nietzsche, Mann, Kafka and others. There is now significant modern expansion around the old centre of the city and the local economy in Riva del Garda relies on both tourism and certain industrial activities.


Your visit to Riva del Garda should start at the 'Rocca'. This fortress was founded by the Scaligeri family from Verona in the 14th century then restructured by the Venetians in the 15th century and also later by the Lords from Trent.  The fort is now home to the impressive collections of the Civic Library and the Civic Museum.

Next take a stroll around the port area of Riva del Garda, a lovely place for a promenade, a coffee and an ice-cream. As well as the pastel coloured houses overlooking the lake you can also see the ruins of the fortifications that were erected in the Middle Ages to defend the port. A visit to the Apponale Tower, a 13th century clocktower in the centre of the harbour area, is also interesting with the view from the top of the tower the main attraction.  From here you should then visit the two palaces in Riva del Garda that were inspired by Venetian architecture: the Palazzo Pretorio and the Palazzo Vecchio. Continuing on from here you arrive in the Piazza San Rocco which has many monuments and palaces of both medieval and contemporary style due to the restructuring of the town centre during the last century.

You can now explore the Città Vecchia (Old Town), the historical centre of Riva del Garda where you can see some interesting baroque style palaces. Enter the old town by the "Porta-Torre of San Marco" or the "Porta-Torre of San Michele". Also to admire in this part of Riva del Garda is a baroque style church called "Della Disciplina" and the "Assuntas Church". More buildings in both Renaissance and Baroque style can be seen along the "Viale Roma" such as the Chiesa dell Inviolata church, while the 'San Michele fuori le mura' is a church of medieval origin. Your tour of the town can be concluded with a walk on the "Lungomare Brescia", created by restructuring some ancient structures and dating from the 19th century and the First World War.


  • A short walk from Riva del Garda also takes you to the Varone Waterfall, about 100 metres high and well worth the walk.
  • Lake Tenno and Lake di Ledro, both of which are in scenic positions surrounded by mountains.
  • You might not guess given the location of Riva del Garda, but it also has a very popular windsurfing centre based at nearby Torbole, with a reliable wind from the mountains blowing out across the lake.
  • You will also find a good sized pebble beach on the edge of Riva del Garda.
  • The other resorts around the shores of Lake Garda can also be reached using the ferries that regularly cross the lake, although from here it is quite a long boat journey to reach those at the southern end of the lake such as Sirmione. You can also circumnavigate the lake by car or bike.
  • Heading north from here and away from the lake you reach Arco, a picturesque village and a good place to start more adventurous excursions into the dolomites. Further north you reach the 'real' mountains and winter ski resorts such as Madonna di Campiglio.

Roncegno Terme | Trento Province


roncegno terme

Roncegno Terme is a comune (municipality) in Trentino in the northern Italian region Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, located about east of Trento. The municipality of Roncegno contains the frazioni (subdivisions, mainly villages and hamlets) Marter, Monte di Mezzo, S. Brigida and 44 Masi. Roncegno borders the following municipalities: Fierozzo, Torcegno, Ronchi Valsugana, Frassilongo, Borgo Valsugana and Novaledo.  The spa area is well know for health treatments and relaxation but the nautral surrounding is perfect for an active vacation.

Rovereto | Trento Province



Rovereto is a city and comune in Trentino in northern Italy, located in the Vallagarina valley of the Adige River. Rovereto was an ancient fortress town standing at the frontier between the bishopric of Trento – an independent state until 1797 – and the republic of Venice, and later between Austrian Tyrol and Italy. In the past Rovereto was an important centre for the manufacture of silk fabrics. Currently, wine, rubber, chocolate, glasses and coffee are the town's main businesses. Rovereto is the birthplace (1941) of Sferoflex eyeglasses, now taken over by Luxottica. Other relevant companies located in Rovereto are Marangoni Pneumatici, Sandoz Industrial Products Spa, Cioccolato Cisa, and Metalsistem.

Rovereto railway station, opened in 1859, forms part of the Brenner railway, which links Verona with Innsbruck.


  • The castle, built by the counts of Castelbarco in the 13th–14th centuries, and later enlarged by the Venetians during their rule of Rovereto.
  • The Italian War museum (Museo Storico Italiano della Guerra) is located inside the castle. The Italian War Museum was founded in 1921 in remembrance of the First World War and in it are preserved arms and documents relating to wars from the 16th to the 20th centuries.
  • The mighty bell Maria Dolens, one of the largest outside Russia and East Asia, and the second-largest swinging bell in the world after the St. Peter's Bell of the Cologne Cathedral. Maria Dolens ("the grieving Virgin Mary") was built under the inspiration of a local priest, between 1918 and 1925, to commemorate the fallen in all wars, and to this day it sounds for the dead every day. Originally a patriotic rather than pacifist idea, it is today regarded as a shrine to peace.
  • MART, the Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art of Trento and Rovereto offers temporary exhibitions, educational activities, and has a remarkable permanent collection.
  • In the area of Lavini di Marco footprints of dinosaurs have been found. The species have been identified as the herbivorous Camptosaurus and carnivorous Dilophosaurus. Marco also hosts a large landslide which was mentioned by Dante Alighieri in his Divina Commedia: "Qual è quella ruina chenel fianco di qua da Trento l'Adice percosse, o per tremoto o per sostegno manco" (Inferno, canto XII).

San Martino di Castrozza | Trento Province


san martino di castrozza

San Martino di Castrozza  is a mountain resort in the Primiero valley in the Trento province in Italy. The western part, with 428 inhabitants, is in the comune of Siror, the eastern, with 135, in Tonadico. San Martino is situated in a valley of green meadows, in the Natural Park of Paneveggio-Pale di San Martino. It is surrounded by peaks of the Dolomites, including the Pale di San Martino, of which the highest peaks are Vezzana and the Cimon della Pala.

The first buildings on the site of San Martino were a religious institution, the hospice of saints Martino and Giuliano, which welcomed travelers crossing the Alps by the Rolle Pass between the valleys of Primiero and Fiemme. All that remains of the hospice is the church of San Martino, which has a romanesque bell-tower. The first alpine hotel in San Martino was built by the Irish traveller, John Ball in 1873. By the first decade of the 20th century San Martino di Castrozza was already established as a tourist destination for the wealthy of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, of which Trentino then formed part. The resort was rebuilt after the devastation of the First World War.

Sugana Valley | Trento Province


pergine valsugana

The Sugana Valley is one of the most important valleys in the autonomous province of Trento in Northern Italy. Leading into the Alps' foothills, an important main north-south Roman road, the Via Claudia Augusta, one of Europe's main roads since its construction in Antiquity, winds along the valley and connects the Adriatic with the historic Holy Roman Empire and Frankish kingdom's centre of Augsburg. The sturdy construction of this long-distance road running through the valley has made it historically one of the most important north-south European transit lanes because the route from the Veneto region to points near and beyond the famed Brenner pass is significantly shorter than proceeding Venice to Verona to Brenner. Henry II used the road to bypass a position blocked by a rival allowing him to gain the throne of the Holy Roman Empire. The Valle dei Mocheni is also of historic interest as it has remained a German-speaking enclave in modern Italy to this day. This came about as during the High Middle Ages while the region was ruled by the Holy Roman Empire (many Emperors were also Kings of Italy) many German-speaking farmers and miners settled into the region. The western part of the valley nearest Trento is an extensive tourist area which began as a health spa during the late 19th century when the Levico Terme baths were established and became popular with the upper classes. This parallels the history of what became modern vacations and resort towns in much of the world (Contrast with St Moritz, Mineral Wells, and Steamboat Springs), the situation in the valley being enhanced perhaps by the easy access both north and south given it by the sturdy Roman road, when roads were usually just dirt tracks with deep ruts and large puddles. Otherwise the scenery is marked by vineyards and orchards and groves of edible horse-chestnuts.

Nearby Lake Caldonazzo, and the village of Caldonazzo, is a further international tourist center located just south of the Dolomite Mountains, a southern foothill range of the higher Alps just to the North. Together, Caldonazzo Lake and the Dolomites create one of the most beautiful regions of northern Italy and harbor a host of outdoor sporting activities, such as climbing, hiking, mountain biking, power boating, sailing, and windsurfing to name just a few.

The Council of Trent in Northern Italy


The Council of Trent (), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trento (Trent) and Bologna, northern Italy, was one of the Roman Catholic Church's most important ecumenical councils. Prompted by the Protestant Reformation, it has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation."Trent. Four hundred years later, when Pope John XXIII initiated preparations for the Second Vatican Council (Vatican II), he affirmed the decrees it had issued: "What was, still is."Quoted in Responses As well as decrees,Jedin, 138. the Council issued condemnations of what it defined to be heresies committed by Protestantism and, in response to them, key statements and clarifications of the Church's doctrine and teachings. These addressed a wide range of subjects, including scripture, the Biblical canon, sacred tradition, original sin, justification, salvation, the sacraments, the Mass and the veneration of saints.Wetterau, Bruce. World History. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1994. The Council met for twenty-five sessions between 13 December 1545 and 4 December 1563, all in Trento (then the capital of the Prince-Bishopric of Trent in the Holy Roman Empire), apart from the ninth to eleventh sessions held in Bologna during 1547.Hubert Jedin, Konciliengeschichte, Verlag Herder, Freiburg, p.? 138. Pope Paul III, who the Council, presided over these and the first eight sessions (1545–47), while the twelfth to sixteenth sessions (1551–52) were overseen by Pope Julius III and the seventeenth to twenty-fifth sessions (1562–63) by Pope Pius IV. The consequences of the Council were also significant as regards the Church's liturgy and practices. During its deliberations, the Council made the Vulgate the official example of the Biblical canon and commissioned the creation of a standard version, although this was not achieved until the 1590s. In 1565, however, a year or so after the Council finished its work, Pius IV issued the Tridentine Creed (after Tridentum, Trento's Latin name) and his successor Pius V then issued the Roman Catechism and revisions of the Breviary and Missal in, respectively, 1566, 1568 and 1570. These, in turn, led to the codification of the Tridentine Mass, which remained the Church's primary form of the Mass for the next four hundred years. More than three hundred and fifty years passed until the next ecumenical council, the First Vatican Council (Vatican I), was convened.

Background information

Obstacles and events before the Council

On 15 March 1517, the Fifth Council of the Lateran closed its activities with a number of reform proposals (on the selection of bishops, taxation, censorship and preaching) but not on the major problems that confronted the Church in Germany and other parts of Europe. A few months later, on 31 October 1517, Martin Luther issued his 95 Theses in Wittenberg.

A general, free council in Germany

Luther's position on ecumenical councils shifted over time,. but in 1520 he appealed to the German princes to oppose the papal Church, if necessary with a council in Germany,. open and free of the Papacy. After the Pope condemned in Exsurge Domine fifty-two of Luther's theses as heresy, German opinion considered a council the best method to reconcile existing differences. German Catholics, diminished in number, hoped for a council to clarify matters.Jedin 81 It took a generation for the council to materialise, partly because of papal reluctance, given that a Lutheran demand was the exclusion of the papacy from the Council, and partly because of ongoing political rivalries between France and Germany and the Turkish dangers in the Mediterranean. Under Pope Clement VII (1523–34), troops of the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor Charles V sacked Papal Rome in 1527, "raping, killing, burning, stealing, the like had not been seen since the Vandals". Saint Peter's Basilica and the Sistine Chapel were used for horses.Hans Kühner Papstgeschichte, Fischer, Frankfurt 1960, 118 This, together with the Pontiff's ambivalence between France and Germany, led to his hesitation. Charles V strongly favoured a council, but needed the support of King Francis I of France, who attacked him militarily. Francis I generally opposed a general council due to partial support of the Protestant cause within France, and in 1533 he further complicated matters when suggesting a general council to include both Catholic and Protestant rulers of Europe that would devise a compromise between the two theological systems. This proposal met the opposition of the Pope for it gave recognition to Protestants and also elevated the secular Princes of Europe above the clergy on church matters. Faced with a Turkish attack, Charles held the support of the Protestant German rulers, all of whom delayed the opening of the Council of Trent

Occasion, sessions, and attendance

In reply to the Papal bull Exsurge Domine of Pope Leo X (1520), Martin Luther burned the document and appealed for a general council. In 1522 German diets joined in the appeal, with Charles V seconding and pressing for a council as a means of reunifying the Church and settling the Reformation controversies. Pope Clement VII (1523–34) was vehemently against the idea of a council, agreeing with Francis I of France. After Pope Pius II, in his bull Execrabilis (1460) and his reply to the University of Cologne (1463), set aside the theory of the supremacy of general councils laid down by the Council of Constance. Pope Paul III (1534–49), seeing that the Protestant Reformation was no longer confined to a few preachers, but had won over various princes, particularly in Germany, to its ideas, desired a council. Yet when he proposed the idea to his cardinals, it was almost unanimously opposed. Nonetheless, he sent nuncios throughout Europe to propose the idea. Paul III issued a decree for a general council to be held in Mantua, Italy, to begin on 23 May 1537. Martin Luther wrote the Smalcald Articles in preparation for the general council. The Smalcald Articles were designed to sharply define where the Lutherans could and could not compromise.The council was ordered by the Emperor and Pope Paul III to convene in Mantua on 23 May 1537. It failed to convene after another war broke out between France and Charles V, resulting in a non-attendance of French prelates. Protestants, just defeated by Charles V, refused to attend as well. Financial difficulties in Mantua led the Pope in the autumn of 1537 to move the council to Vicenza, where participation was poor. The Council was postponed indefinitely on 21 May 1539. Pope Paul III then initiated several internal Church reforms while Emperor Charles V convened with Protestants at an imperial diet in Regensburg, to reconcile differences. Unity failed between Catholic and Protestant representatives "because of different concepts of Church and justification".Jedin 85 However, the council was delayed until 1545 and, as it happened, convened right before Luther's death. Unable, however, to resist the urging of Charles V, the pope, after proposing Mantua as the place of meeting, convened the council at Trento (at that time a free city of the Holy Roman Empire under a prince-bishop), on 13 December 1545; the Pope's decision to transfer it to Bologna in March 1547 on the pretext of avoiding a plague failed to take effect and the Council was indefinitely prorogued on 17 September 1549. None of the three popes reigning over the duration of the council ever attended, which had been a condition of Charles V. Papal legates were appointed to represent the Papacy.O'Malley, 29-30 Reopened at Trento on 1 May 1551 by convocation of Pope Julius III (1550–5), it was broken up by the sudden victory of Maurice, Elector of Saxony over the Emperor Charles V and his march into surrounding state of Tirol on 28 April 1552. There was no hope of reassembling the council while the very anti-Protestant Paul IV was Pope. The council was reconvened by Pope Pius IV (1559–65) for the last time, meeting from 18 January 1562, and continued until its final adjournment on 4 December 1563. It closed with a series of ritual acclamations honouring the reigning Pope, the Popes who had convoked the Council, the emperor and the kings who had supported it, the papal legates, the cardinals, the ambassadors present, and the bishops, followed by acclamations of acceptance of the faith of the Council and its decrees, and of anathema for all heretics. Acclamations The history of the council is thus divided into three distinct periods: 1545–49, 1551–52 and 1562–63. During the second period, the Protestants present asked for renewed discussion on points already defined and for bishops to be released from their oaths of allegiance to the Pope. When the last period began, all hope of conciliating the Protestants was gone and the Jesuits had become a strong force. The number of attending members in the three periods varied considerably. The council was small to begin with, opening with only about 30 bishops.O'Malley, 29 It increased toward the close, but never reached the number of the First Council of Nicaea (which had 318 members) nor of the First Vatican Council (which numbered 744). The decrees were signed in 1563 by 255 members, the highest attendance of the whole council,O'Malley, 29 including four papal legates, two cardinals, three patriarchs, twenty-five archbishops, and 168 bishops, two-thirds of whom were Italians. The Italian and Spanish prelates were vastly preponderant in power and numbers. At the passage of the most important decrees, not more than sixty prelates were present. The French monarchy boycotted the entire council until the last minute; a delegation led by Charles de Guise, Cardinal of Lorraine finally arrived in November 1562. The first outbreak of the French Wars of Religion had been earlier in the year, and the French had experience of a significant and powerful Protestant minority, iconoclasm and tensions leading to violence in a way the Italians and Iberians did not. Among other influences, the last minute inclusion of a decree on sacred images was a French initiative, and the text, never discussed on the floor of the council or referred to council theologians, was based on a French draft.

Objectives and overall results

The main objectives of the council were twofold, although there were other issues that were also discussed: To condemn the principles and doctrines of Protestantism and to clarify the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church on all disputed points. It is true that the emperor intended it to be a strictly general or truly ecumenical council, at which the Protestants should have a fair hearing. He secured, during the council's second period, 1551–53, an invitation, twice given, to the Protestants to be present and the council issued a letter of safe conduct (thirteenth session) and offered them the right of discussion, but denied them a vote. Melanchthon and Johannes Brenz, with some other German Lutherans, actually started in 1552 on the journey to Trento. Brenz offered a confession and Melanchthon, who got no farther than Nuremberg, took with him the Confessio Saxonica. But the refusal to give the Protestants the right to vote and the consternation produced by the success of Maurice in his campaign against Charles V in 1552 effectually put an end to Protestant cooperation.
To effect a reformation in discipline or administration. This object had been one of the causes calling forth the reformatory councils and had been lightly touched upon by the Fifth Council of the Lateran under Pope Julius II. The obvious corruption in the administration of the Church was one of the numerous causes of the Reformation. Twenty-five public sessions were held, but nearly half of them were spent in solemn formalities. The chief work was done in committees or congregations. The entire management was in the hands of the papal legate. The liberal elements lost out in the debates and voting. The council abolished some of the most notorious abuses and introduced or recommended disciplinary reforms affecting the sale of indulgences, the morals of convents, the education of the clergy, the non-residence of bishops (also bishops having plurality of benefices, which was fairly common), and the careless fulmination of censures, and forbade duelling. Although evangelical sentiments were uttered by some of the members in favour of the supreme authority of the Scriptures and justification by faith, no concession whatsoever was made to Protestantism.

The Church is the ultimate interpreter of Scripture.Catechism of the Catholic Church Paragraph 85 Also, the Bible and Church Tradition (the tradition that made up part of the Catholic faith) were equally and independently authoritative.
The relationship of faith and works in salvation was defined, following controversy over Martin Luther's doctrine of " justification by faith alone".
Other Roman Catholic practices that drew the ire of reformers within the Church, such as indulgences, pilgrimages, the veneration of saints and relics, and the veneration of the Virgin Mary were strongly reaffirmed, though abuses of them, such as the sale of indulgences, were forbidden. Decrees concerning sacred music and religious art, though inexplicit, were subsequently amplified by theologians and writers to condemn many types of Renaissance and medieval styles and iconographies, impacting heavily on the development of these art forms.
The doctrinal decisions of the council are divided into decrees (decreta), which contain the positive statement of the conciliar dogmas, and into short canons (canones), which condemn the dissenting Protestant views with the concluding "anathema sit" ("let him be anathema").

Canons and decrees

The doctrinal acts are as follows: after reaffirming the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed (third session), the decree was passed (fourth session) confirming that the deuterocanonical books were on a par with the other books of the canon (against Luther's placement of these books in the Apocrypha of his edition) and coordinating church tradition with the Scriptures as a rule of faith. The Vulgate translation was affirmed to be authoritative for the text of Scripture. Justification (sixth session) was declared to be offered upon the basis of human cooperation with divine grace as opposed to the Protestant doctrine of passive reception of grace. Understanding the Protestant " faith alone" doctrine to be one of simple human confidence in divine mercy, the Council rejected the " vain confidence" of the Protestants, stating that no one can know who has received the grace of God. Furthermore the Council affirmed against Protestant doctrine that the grace of God can be forfeited through mortal sin. The greatest weight in the Council's decrees is given to the sacraments. The seven sacraments were reaffirmed and the Eucharist pronounced to be a true propitiatory sacrifice as well as a sacrament, in which the bread and wine were consecrated into the Eucharist (thirteenth and twenty-second sessions). The term transubstantiation was used by the Council, but the specific Aristotelian explanation given by Scholasticism was not cited as dogmatic. Instead, the decree states that Christ is "really, truly, substantially present" in the consecrated forms. The sacrifice of the Mass was to be offered for dead and living alike and in giving to the apostles the command "do this in remembrance of me," Christ conferred upon them a sacerdotal power. The practice of withholding the cup from the laity was confirmed (twenty-first session) as one which the Church Fathers had commanded for good and sufficient reasons; yet in certain cases the Pope was made the supreme arbiter as to whether the rule should be strictly maintained. On the language of the Mass, "contrary to what is often said", the council condemned the belief that only vernacular languages should be used, but did not insist on the use of Latin.O'Malley, 31 Ordination (twenty-third session) was defined to imprint an indelible character on the soul. The priesthood of the New Testament takes the place of the Levitical priesthood. To the performance of its functions, the consent of the people is not necessary. In the decrees on marriage (twenty-fourth session) the excellence of the celibate state was reaffirmed, concubinage condemned and the validity of marriage made dependent upon the wedding taking place before a priest and two witnesses, although the lack of a requirement for parental consent ended a debate that had proceeded from the 12th century. In the case of a divorce, the right of the innocent party to marry again was denied so long as the other party was alive, even if the other party had committed adultery. However the council "refused... to assert the necessity of usefulness of clerical celibacy.O'Malley, 31 In the twenty-fifth and last session,Council of Trent: Decree Deinvocatione, veneratione et reliquiis sanctorum, et desacris imaginibus, 3.12.1563, Sessio 25. the doctrines of purgatory, the invocation of saints and the veneration of relics were reaffirmed, as was also the efficacy of indulgences as dispensed by the Church according to the power given her, but with some cautionary recommendations, and a ban on the sale of indulgences. Short and rather inexplicit passages concerning religious images, were to have great impact on the development of Roman Catholic art. Much more than the Second Council of Nicaea (787) the Council fathers of Trent stressed the pedagogical purpose of Christian images.Bühren 2008, p. 635f.; about the historical context of the decree on sacred images cf. Jedin 1935. The council appointed, in 1562 (eighteenth session), a commission to prepare a list of forbidden books ( Index Librorum Prohibitorum), but it later left the matter to the Pope. The preparation of a catechism and the revision of the Breviary and Missal were also left to the pope. The catechism embodied the council's far-reaching results, including reforms and definitions of the sacraments, the Scriptures, church dogma, and duties of the clergy. On adjourning, the Council asked the supreme pontiff to ratify all its decrees and definitions. This petition was complied with by Pope Pius IV, on 26 January 1564, in the papal bull, Benedictus Deus, which enjoins strict obedience upon all Roman Catholics and forbids, under pain of excommunication, all unauthorised interpretation, reserving this to the Pope alone and threatens the disobedient with "the indignation of Almighty God and of his blessed apostles, Peter and Paul." Pope Pius appointed a commission of cardinals to assist him in interpreting and enforcing the decrees. The Indexlibrorum prohibitorum was announced in 1564 and the following books were issued with the papal imprimatur: the Profession of the Tridentine Faith and the Tridentine Catechism (1566), the Breviary (1568), the Missal (1570) and the Vulgate (1590 and then 1592). The decrees of the council were acknowledged in Italy, Portugal, Poland and by the Catholic princes of Germany at the Diet of Augsburg in 1566. Philip II of Spain accepted them for Spain, the Netherlands and Sicily inasmuch as they did not infringe the royal prerogative. In France they were officially recognised by the king only in their doctrinal parts. The disciplinary sections received official recognition at provincial synods and were enforced by the bishops. No attempt was made to introduce it into England. Pius IV sent the decrees to Mary, Queen of Scots, with a letter dated 13 June 1564, requesting her to publish them in Scotland, but she dared not do it in the face of John Knox and the Reformation. These decrees were later supplemented by the First Vatican Council of 1870

Publication of documen

The most comprehensive history is still Hubert Jedin's The History of the Council of Trent (Geschichte des Konzils von Trient) with about 2500 pages in four volumes: The History of the Council of Trent: The fight for a Council (Vol I, 1951); The History of the Council of Trent: The first Sessions in Trent (1545–1547) (Vol II, 1957); The History of the Council of Trent: Sessions in Bologna 1547–1548 and Trento 1551–1552 (Vol III, 1970, 1998); The History of the Council of Trent: Third Period and Conclusion (Vol IV, 1976). The canons and decrees of the council have been published very often and in many languages (for a large list consult British Museum Catalogue, under "Trent, Council of"). The first issue was by Paulus Manutius (Rome, 1564). The best Latin editions are by J. Le Plat (Antwerp, 1779) and by F. Schulte and A. L. Richter (Leipzig, 1853). Other good editions are in vol. vii. of the Acta et decreta conciliorum recentiorum. Collectio Lacensis (7vols., Freiburg, 1870–90), reissued as independent volume (1892); Concilium Tridentinum: Diariorum,actorum, epastularum,... collectio, ed. S. Merkle (4 vols., Freiburg, 1901 sqq.; only vols. i.–iv. have as yet appeared); not to overlook Mansi, Concilia, xxxv. 345 sqq. Note also Mirbt, Quellen, 2d ed, pp. 202–255. The best English edition is by James Waterworth (London, 1848; With Essays on the External and Internal History of the Council). The original acts and debates of the council, as prepared by its general secretary, Bishop Angelo Massarelli, in six large folio volumes, are deposited in the Vatican Library and remained there unpublished for more than 300 years and were brought to light, though only in part, by Augustin Theiner, priest of the oratory (d. 1874), in Acta genuina sancti et oecumenici Concilii Tridentini nunc primumintegre edita (2 vols., Leipzig, 1874). Most of the official documents and private reports, however, which bear upon the council, were made known in the 16th century and since. The most complete collection of them is that of J. Le Plat, Monumentorum adhistoricam Concilii Tridentini collectio (7 vols., Leuven, 1781–87). New materials(Vienna, 1872); by JJI von Döllinger (Ungedruckte Berichte und Tagebücher zur Geschichte des Concilii von Trient) (2 parts, Nördlingen, 1876); and A. von Druffel, Monumenta Tridentina (Munich, 1884–97).


Trento Province Bike Touring Routes


Bike Tour Italy, Trento Region

The Trento Province offers both rides along bike paths in the valley and classic climbs.  The province is enough Italian that you get a good blend of Italian food and wine, plus culture.  There is an interesting mix of rides that will satisfy most cyclist route preference.

Bike Tour Trento Province, Map


Bicycle Tour Around the Brenta Mountain Group to Bolzano



Trento to Bolzano Adige River Bike Path, Trentino Alto Adige Region


Mezzocorona, Trento to Bolzano Bike Tour

If you riding in northern Italy and wish to ride from cities of Trento to Bolzano the best option is to use the bike path that connects the city. The difference in elevation between the two cities is minimal, about 70 m gain over 70 km [230 feet over 44 miles]; therefore, it doesn't make a lot of difference which way you follow the route, one direction or the other. The route described here starts from Trento (and therefore has a very slight elevation gain going towards Bolzano).

Bike Touring Italy, Trento to Bolzano Bike Path


Signposts: Pista ciclabile Val d’Adige / Fahrradweg Trento - Cadino - Bozen (N° 1)

European Route: Via Claudia Augusta, Val d’Adige cycle track

Estimated time>2.5 - 3.5 hours
Distance: 60 km
Elevation Gain: 60 m
Surface: entirely asphalted
Starting point: Trento
Finish point: Bolzano
Towns Along the Route: Trento, Lavis, Zambana, Nave S. Rocco, Mezzocorona, Faedo, Rovere della Luna
Bike & train: regional trains with cycle trailer serve the railway line between Bolzano and Trento

Italy travel planning and travel support services


The point of departure is the FS train station at Trento: leaving the station exit to the right, then take an immediate right onto Cavalcavia [overpass] San Lorenzo, which takes you over the tracks; cross the Lungo Adige Canal and just before the bridge over the Adige River, is the bike path. To go to Bolzano, turn right. Alternatively, before you get on the bike path, you could take a quick tour of the city. Crossing the Piazzale in front of the train station, dominated by a monument to Dante Alighieri, and heading to the left, you will find yourself at the Castello del Buonconsiglio, which for centuries was the seat of the bishop of Trento, the de facto ruler of the city. After visiting the castle, take a street to the right and you will enter the old town; the traditional center of the city is the Piazza del Duomo, dominated by a beautiful bell tower.

The bike path initially is located on the right side of the Adige (left if coming from the north), then alternately on the left side and then on the right again. It touches the villages of Lavis, S. Michele all`Adige, Salorno (where you enter the province of Bolzano), and Ora. This stretch of the Adige bike route is characterized by huge apple orchards; in the fall, the red color of the apples ready for harvest dominates the landscape together with the blue of the river and the blue-green of the mountains.

A few miles before Bolzano you leave the Adige river and now finds oneself on the left side of the Isarco River [Eisack in German]; the bike path continues through the developed areas of Bolzano ending at the historic center with Piazza Walther as its center. A few hundred meters further is the train station on the Brennero route.


Val di Sole | Trento Province


Val di sole

The Sole Valley (Ladin: Val de Sól, or Valle di Sole,) is a valley in the Trento Province, northern Italy. Sole Valley applies to the Vermiglio Valley, the east-west aligned valley of the river Noce and its side valleys, among which the Peio Valley that heads to the Ortler. The rest of the valley from Ossana to Mostizzolo is simply called Sole Valley. Some of the towns in the valley are Vermiglio, Peio, Dimaro, Croviana and Malè (the main town). The Sole Valley heads to the Tonale Pass, on the other side of the pass (and in the same direction as the Vermiglio Valley) begins the valley of the river Oglio which flows to Edolo. In the northwest the region is bordered by the Ortler group with the national park Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio, in the southwest by the Adamellogroup with the nature reserve Parco Naturale Adamello Brenta. In the southern part of the region is the ski resort Madonna di Campiglio, just over the Campo Carlo Magno, a pass that leads to the Rendena Valley. In the east the region ends at Mostizzolo, where the main valley bends south to Non Valley before joining the valley of the Adige north of Trento.

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