ARCO DEI GAVI IN THE CITY OF VERONA ITALY
The Arco dei Gavi is an ancient structure in the city of Verona, Veneto Region Italy. It was built by the gens Gavia, a noble Roman family who had their hometown in Verona, at the beginning of the Via Postumia, the Roman road leading to the city. During the Middle Ages it was used as a gate in the walls. The arch was commissioned to architect L. Vitruvius Cerdo in the 1st century AD, likely during the reign of Tiberius. The arch was erected by a prominent local family, the Gavi. It putatively stood at the beginning of the Via Sacra or via Postumia Now , Corso Castelvecchio,
A stone contained an inscription stating : Lucius Vitruvius Libertus or Cerdon Lucius Vitruvius'' architect. Later scholars often mistook this for someone with an link to the famed architect Vitruvius. The flanking niches appear to have held statues of family members. In the Middle Ages, during the communal age of Verona, the city's council used it as an entrance gate when it was decided to surround Verona with a line of walls. During the Napoleonic rule in Italy, the French engineers demolished it. Its ruins were moved to a square and then to the Arena.
Using some of the original stones, a proposed reconstruction of the arch was completed in 1932. This reconstruction was based on a wooden models made prior to demolition, and proposed reconstructions drawn up as early as the 16th-century by no less than Palladio. These models underscore the reverence held for even trivial examples of monumental Roman architecture. The reconstruction of the Gavi Arch under Mussolini, just like his reconstruction of the Ara Pacis and the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome, was done to promote the propaganda of Fascism in Italy, exhorting Italy to identify with a Imperial Roman past. The arch was rebuilt next to Castelvecchio, not far from its original location.
ROMA ARENA, VERONA
Verona is famous for its Roman amphitheatre, the Arena found in the city's largest piazza, the Piazza Bra. Completed around 30 AD, it is the third largest in Italy after Rome's Colosseum and the arena at Capua. It measures 139 metres long and 110 metres wide, and could seat some 25,000 spectators in its 44 tiers of marble seats. The ludi (shows and gladiator games) performed within its walls were so famous that they attracted spectators from far beyond the city. The current two-story façade is actually the internal support for the tiers; only a fragment of the original outer perimeter wall in white and pink limestone from Valpolicella, with three stories remains.The interior is very impressive and is virtually intact, and has remained in use even today for public events, fairs, theatre and open-aired opera during warm summer nights.
The Arena, itself was built in AD 30 on a site which was then beyond the city walls. The ludi (shows and games) staged there were so famous that spectators came from many other places, often far away, to witness them. The amphitheatre could host more than 30,000 spectators in ancient times. The round façade of the building was originally composed of white and pink limestone from Valpolicella, but after a major earthquake in 1117, which almost completely destroyed the structure's outer ring, except for the so-called "ala", the stone was quarried for re-use in other buildings. Nevertheless it impressed medieval visitors to the city, one of whom considered it to have been a labyrinth, without ingress or egress. Ciriaco d'Ancona was filled with admiration for the way it had been built and Giovanni Antonio Panteo's civic panegyric Delaudibus veronae, 1483, remarked that it struck the viewer as a construction that was more than human.Weiss 1969.
MERLARA WINE ZONE, VERONA PROVINCE
The area of the Merlara wine zone encompasses municipalities in the province of Padua and province of Verona, has always been interested in wine-growing, even if only as a marginal and secondary cultivation, dating back as far as the 16th century. The grapes, harvested and processed in the wineries of the courts to make the wine, were served as refreshments to the numerous wayfarers as they went on their way through the old roadways connecting important trading towns. The area has recently turned to better quality wine-making, thanks to the commitment of local growers who have invested not only in more technically advanced business management, but also in vineyards. Local historical ties with vines can be traced to varieties such as Marzemino, Raboso and Merlot as far as red wines are concerned and Malvasia and other grapes such as Trebbiani for whites.
D.O.C. wines are:Merlara Bianco - a blend comprising 50-70% of Tocai friulano and the remainder of other white grapes, Merlara Biancofrizzante (sparkling), Merlara Tai, Merlara Malvasia, Merlara Rosso - a Merlot, Cabernet and Marzemino blend, Merlara Cabernet, Merlara Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlara Merlot, Merlara Marzemino frizzante (sparkling) and Merlara novello.
The territory is home to a number of places of interest, such as the historical town walls of Montagnana, Villa Correr in Casale di Scodosia, Villa Barbarigo in Merlara and Villa Fascinato in Terrazzo.
The beauty of the landscape the area has to offer is appreciable. Each season characterises and changes the landscapes of valleys against the backdrop of the Euganean and Berici Hills, a unique view. In the spring, the orchards blossom and the emerald green of the vines provides a charming view of the landscape. In the summer, the golden expanses of wheat fields are a wonderful sight glimpsed between the Adige and Fratta rivers. In the autumn, the colour of leaves in the vineyards, exposed to the sun, reflect golden and reddish shades all around.
PALAZZO MAFFEI, VERONA
Palazzo Maffei is a historical palace in Verona, northern Italy, on the north-western side of Piazza delle Erbe. A building existed in the current location in the 15th century, but on 20 December 1469 the nobleman Marcantonio Maffei decided to expand it by adding a third floor. Construction works ended only in 1668. The three-floor façade of the palace is in Baroque style. It starts at a slightly higher level than the square: underneath remains can be seen of the ancient Roman Capitoline Hill, where the Piazza delle Erbe later was settled. The first floor has five arcades between tympani. Over each arcade a window with an elegant balcony is placed, separated by Ionic semicolumns decorated by large masks. The third floor is in the same style as the second, but with smaller windows and fake framed columns. The top of the facade is designed as a balustrade with six statues of divinities: Hercules, Jupiter, Venus, Mercury, Apollo and Minerva. The latter are cut from local marble, with the exception of the Hercules, which is believed to have come from an ancient temple once located on the Roman Capitoline Hill. The interior is home to a bizarre helicoidal stone staircase, that leads from the underground stores all the way up to the roof.
PIAZZA BRA, VERONA
Piazza Bra, often shortened to Bra, is the largest piazza in Verona, Italy, with some claims that it is the largest in the country. The piazza is lined with numerous cafés and restaurants, along with several notable buildings. The Verona Arena, originally an amphitheatre built nearly 2000 years ago, is now a world-famous music venue with regular operatic and contemporary music performances. Verona's town hall, the Palazzo Barbieri, also looks out across the piazza.
A garden within Bra is shaded by cedar and pine trees. It surrounds the fountain of the Alps and a bronze statue of Victor Emmanuel II.Bonechi, Casa Editrice. This monument to the first king of Italy, in which he is sat atop a horse, was inaugurated on 9 January 1883, five years to the day after his death. There are many significant buildings within and around Bra, with construction taking place over many centuries.
The building itself was built in the first century AD on a site then beyond the city walls. The ludi (shows and games) staged there were so famous that spectators came from many other places, often far away, to witness them. While it can now host crowds of up to 22,000, the original amphitheatre could seat 30,000 spectators. The arena has been used by many contemporary performers and numerous operas.
Palazzo della Gran Guardia, was the first building erected on the southern edge of Bra. It was originally designed by Domenico Curtoni as a roof built from the existing wall out to several pillars. Leonardo Donato, 90th Doge of Venice, had requested an area for troops to shelter in poor weather. Work commenced in 1610 but stopped when there was a shortfall in available funds. Nearly 200 years later, in 1808, architect Giuseppe Barbieri was commissioned to design and complete the project but it was a further 45 years before it was finished. The building is now used as a venue for conferences, meetings, and exhibitions..
Palazzo Barbieri is Verona's town hall. Originally named Palazzo della Gran Guardia Nuova, it was designed by Giuseppe Barbieri and was later named in his honour. Construction began in 1836 and was completed by 1848.
PIAZZA DELLE ERBE, VERONA
Piazza delle Erbe (Place to find erbs or Market square) is a square in the city of Verona, Veneto Region of Italy. During the time of the Roman Empire this was the location of the town forum. The northern side of the square is occupied by the ancient town hall, the Torre dei Lamberti, the Casa dei Giudici ("Judges' Hall") and the frescoed Mazzanti Houses. The western side, the shortest one, features the Baroque Palazzo Maffei, decorated by statues of Greek gods. It is faced by a white marble column, on which is St. Mark's Lion, symbol of the Republic of Venice. The north-western side occupies the site of the ancient Roman Capitol Hill, which looked towards the forum. Numerous of its buildings facing the square have maintained façade frescoes. On the southern side is the crenllated Casa dei Mercanti ("House of the Merchants", also known as Domus Mercatorum), now the seat of the Banca Popolare di Verona. Other buildings, the tall houses of the Ghetto, are reminiscent of medieval tower-houses. The square's most ancient monument is the fountain (built in 1368 by Cansignorio della Scala), surmounted by a statue called Madonna Verona, which is however a Roman sculpture dating to 380 AD. Also historical is the , dating to the 13th century, during which it was used for several ceremonies, including the oath of investment of the city's medieval podestà and pretors. Towards Via Cappello is another column, with a 14th-century aedicula with reliefs of the Virgin and the Saints Zeno, Peter and Christopher.
PONTE PIETRA IN THE CITY OF VERONA ITALY
The Ponte Pietra ( "Stone Bridge"), once known as the Pons Marmoreus, is a Roman arch bridge crossing the Adige River in the city of Verona, Italy. The bridge was completed in 100 BC, and the Via Postumia from Genoa to Aquileia passed over it. It is the oldest bridge in Verona. It originally flanked another Roman bridge, the Pons Postumius; both structures provided the city (on the right bank) with access to the Roman theatre on the east bank. The arch nearest to the right bank of the Adige was rebuilt in 1298 by Alberto I della Scala. Four arches of the bridge were blown up by retreating German troops in World War II, but rebuilt in 1957 with original materials.
PORTA BORSARI IN THE CITY OF VERONA ITALY
Porta Borsari is an ancient Roman gate in Verona, northern Italy. It dates to the 1st century AD, though it was most likely built over a pre-existing gate from the 1st century BC. An inscription dating from emperor Gallienus' reign reports another reconstruction in 265 AD. The Via Postumia (which here became the decumanus maximus) passed through the gate, which was the city's main entrance and was therefore richly decorated. It also originally had an inner court, now disappeared. The gate's Roman name was Porta Iovia, as it was located near a small temple dedicated to Jupiter lustralis. In the Middle Ages it was called Porta di San Zeno, while the current name derives from the guard soldiers which were paid the dazio (Latin bursarii). The façade, in local white limestone, has two arches flanked by semi-columns with Corinthian capitals which supports entablature and pediment. In the upper part is a two-floor wall with twelve arched windows, some of which are included in small niches with triangular pediment.
ROMAN THEATRE IN THE CITY OF VERONA ITALY
The Roman theatre of Verona (Teatro Romano di Verona) is an ancient Roman theatre in Verona, northern Italy. It is not to be confused with the Roman amphitheatre known as the Verona Arena. The theatre was built in the late 1st century BC. Before its construction, two walls were built alongside the Adige River, between the Ponte di Pietra and the Ponte Postumio, to protect it against floods. Today only remains of the edifice are visible, recovered starting from around 1830. They include thecavea and the steps, several arcades of the loggias and remains of the stage. Part of the cavea was occupied by the church of S. Siro, built in the 10th century and restored in the 14th century. At the top of the hill there was an ancient temple, built on a series of terraces.
SCALIGER FAMILY, HISTORY OF VERONA
The noble family of the Scaliger (also Scaligeri, from de Scalis or della Scala) were Lords of Verona. When Ezzelino III was elected podestà of the commune in 1226, he was able to convert the office into a permanent lordship. Upon his death the Great Council elected as podestà Mastino I Scaligeri, who succeeded in converting the signoria (seigniory) into a family inheritance, governing at first with the acquiescence of the commune, then, when they failed to re-elect him in 1262, he effected a coup d'état and was acclaimedcapitano del popolo ("people's captain"), at the head of the commune's troops.
In 1272 Mastino was killed by a faction of the nobles. The reign of his son Alberto as capitano (1277-1302) was one incessant war against the counts of San Bonifacio, who were aided by the House of Este. Of his three sons, Cangrande I inherited the podestà position in 1308, only the last shared the government (1308) and made a name as warrior, prince and patron of Dante, Petrarch and Giotto. By war or treaty he brought under his control the cities of Padua (1328), Treviso (1329), and Vicenza.
Cangrande I was succeeded by his nephews Mastino II (1329–51) and Alberto. Mastino, the richest and most powerful prince of his generation in Italy, continued his uncle's policy, conquering Brescia in 1332 and carrying his power beyond the Po. He purchased Parma (1335) and Lucca (1339). But a powerful league was formed against him in 1337: Florence, Venice, the Visconti, the Este and the Gonzaga all joined, and after a three years war, the Scaliger dominions were reduced to Verona and Vicenza.
His son Cangrande II (1351–59) was a cruel and suspicious tyrant; not trusting his own subjects, he surrounded himself with German mercenaries but was killed by his brother Cansignorio (1359–75), who beautified Verona with palaces, provided it with aqueducts and bridges, and founded the state treasury. He too killed his other brother, Paolo Alboino. Fratricide among the Scaligeri, when Antonio (1375–87), Cansignorio's natural brother, slew his brother Bartolomeo, aroused the indignation of the people, who deserted him when Gian Galeazzo Visconti of Milan made war on him. Having exhausted all his resources, he fled from Verona at midnight (October 19, 1387), thus putting an end to the Scaliger domination.
His son Can Francesco attempted fruitlessly to recover Verona (1390). Guglielmo (1404), natural son of Cangrande II, was more fortunate; with the support of the people, he drove out the Milanese, but he died ten days after, and Verona then submitted to Venice (1405). The last representatives of the Scaligeri lived at the imperial court and repeatedly attempted to recover Verona by the aid of popular risings. After the Scaligeri had been ousted, two self-proclaimed members of the family, Giulio Cesare della Scala (also known as Julius Caesar Scaliger) and his son Joseph Justus Scaliger, made a reputation as humanist scholars, though their relationship to the historic Scaliger family has been disputed. The church of Santa Maria Antica in Verona is surrounded with the tombs (arche) of the Scaligeri in the form of Gothic shrines, or tempietti, enclosing their sarcophagi: Cangrande della Scala is memorialized with an equestrian statue; Cansignorio by a marble Gothic monument by Bonino da Campione, 1374.
TORRE DEI LAMBERTI, VERONA
The Torre dei Lamberti, in Piazza delle Erbe, is a 84 m high tower in the city of Verona, Veneto Region of Italy. Construction of the tower was started in 1172. In May 1403 the top of the tower was struck by lightning, but the restoration works didn't start until 1448 and took 16 years. During that time, the tower was enlarged: The more recent sections can be recognized today by the use of different materials (such as marble). The large clock was added in 1779. The tower has two bells: the Marangona signals fires, work times, and the hours of the day, while the largest, bell, called Rengo, is used to call the population to arms or to invoke the city's councils.